Guide Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 5, Fruits

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Volume 5, Fruits
  1. Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 5, Fruits - T. K. Lim - Google книги
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  5. Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 5, Fruits

The family has about genera and 1, species of annual herbs or subshrubs, rarely small trees, in temperate and subtropical regions of both hemispheres in all continents except the polar ones.

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Quinoa is a highly nutritious, gluten-free grain, containing more proteins than other cereals with a good balance of all 8 essential amino acids, high in fibre and has a low glycaemic index GI. Other important economic edible species include Beta vulgaris and Spinacea oleracea which are covered in later volumes. Cunoniaceae is a lesser known, small family of flowering trees, shrubs and liana with species in 29 genera. The species are found in tropical and temperate regions especially in the southern hemisphere — Australasia, South Africa, South America and in Central America and Malaysia.

This species has edible fruit that makes excellent jams, sauces, cordial and a full-flavoured, dry red wine. Like members of the family it has anthocyanins that can be used as food colorants. Poaceae a large and cosmopolitan family of monocotyledonous annual or perennial flowering plants, herbaceous, sometimes tall woody culms bamboos usually cylindrical, jointed, often hollow in the internodes, closed at the nodes.

The family has been called grass family and represent the fifth-largest plant family with plant genera and 11, species name names being accepted The Plant List Grasses are of prime importance to the meat, poultry, dairy and wool industries as they provide feed for animals in the form of grazing pastures, fodder and grains. Ten cereal species are covered in this volume: Avena sativa, coix lachryma-jobi, Echinochloa frumentacea, Hordeum vulgare, Oryza sativa, Setaria italicum, Sorghum bicolor, Trticum aestivum, Zea mays and Zizania palustris. Papaveraceae or commonly known as the poppy family, is an economically important family of flowering plants with 44 genera and about species.

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The family is cosmopolitan, occurring in temperate and subtropical climates but almost non-existent in the tropics. Unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum is the source of commercial opium, and numerous species from Papaver, Eschscholtzia, Meconopsis, Argemone, etc. Polygalaceae, the milkwort family, comprises about 17 genera and —1, species of herbs, shrubs and trees, in tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres.

One species with edible fruit indigenous to Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, Xanthophyllum amoenum is treated in this volume. The fruit has been used in local folkloric medicine. Polygonaceae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as knotweed family, smartweed family and buck-wheat family. It has about 1, species in about 50 genera of herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees found worldwide but with greatest diversity in the northern temperate zone. Economically important genera with edible species include Rumex sorrel , Persicaria e. Vietnamese mint , Fagopyrum, Coccoloba, and Rheum rhubarb.

Coccoloba uvifera, sea-grape with edible fruit and Fagopyrum esculentum buckwheat with edible grains are treated in this volume. The other remaining genera consumed as vegetables and potherbs are treated in later volumes. Proteaceae family comprises 80 genera and about 1, species of mainly flowering shrubs Introduction and trees exception Stirlingia herbaceous plant.

The species are widespread in the southern hemispheres with a few species in the northern hemisphere. Together with the Platanaceae and Nelumbonaceae, they make up the order Proteales. Many are cultivated by the nursery industry for their prominent and distinctive flowers and foliage. Some are cultivated for the fresh and dried cut-flower industry. Macadamia integrifolia and M. Rubiaceae, the coffee or madder family, is the fifth largest family of flowering plant by number of genera, and the fourth or fifth largest by number of species with about genera and 13, species. The species are shrubs mostly , trees, lianas and herbs with the greatest diversity in the warm, humid, tropical climates.

Following molecular phylogenetic studies by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, a number of traditionally accepted families Dialypetalanthaceae, Henriqueziaceae, Naucleaceae, and Theligonaceae are now subsumed under Rubiaceae.

Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 5, Fruits - T. K. Lim - Google книги

Included in this volume are four species with edible fruits, Nauclea orientalis, Morinda citrifolia noni , Coffea arabica Arabica coffee , C. The pharmacological impact of coffee consumption and health are elaborated under the three Coffea chapters. Ranunculaceae buttercup or crowfoot family comprises about 60 genera and 2, species distributed globally.

Wild Edible, Medicinal, Useful, and Poisonous Plants Part I

Most are herbaceous plants, but with some woody climbers such as Clematis and subshrubs e. Many are common and well-known ornamentals such as many genera are well known as cultivated flowers, such 3 as Aconitum monkshood , Clematis, Consolida larkspur , Delphinium larkspur , Helleborus Christmas rose , Ranunculus Buttercup , Trollius globeflower. A pH of about 6 is ideal for blackcurrants and the ground can be limed if the soil is too acidic.

Planting is usually done in the autumn or winter to allow the plants to become established before growth starts in the spring, [8] but container-grown stock can be planted at any time of year.

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Two-year-old bushes are usually planted but strong one-year-old stock can also be used. Planting certified stock avoids the risk of introducing viruses.

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On a garden scale the plants can be set at intervals of 1. In the UK, young bushes are generally planted deeper than their initial growing level to encourage new stems to grow from the base. The blackcurrant requires a number of essential nutrients to be present to enable it to thrive; nitrogen provides strong plant growth and stimulates the production of flower sprigs; phosphorus aids growth, the setting of fruit and crop yield; potassium promotes growth of individual shoots and increases the weight of individual fruits; magnesium is a constituent of chlorophyll and helps increase yields through interaction with potassium; calcium is required for cell division and enlargement and is particularly important for young plants and buds.

An annual spring mulch of well rotted manure is ideal and poultry manure can also be used but needs prior composting with straw or other waste vegetable material. Spent mushroom compost can be used but care should be taken as it often contains lime and blackcurrants prefer slightly acidic soils. The blackcurrant is a gross feeder and benefits from additional nitrogen, and phosphatic and potash fertilisers should also be applied annually. Fruit in blackcurrants is borne primarily on one-year-old shoots. Newly planted bushes should be pruned severely, cutting all shoots back to two buds above ground level.

This gives the plant a chance to get properly established before needing to put its energy into producing fruit. The general rule when pruning is to remove all weak shoots and those growing out sideways which may get weighed down when fruiting. The remaining branches should be thinned to remove old unproductive wood and to encourage new shoots. An established bush should not be allowed to become overcrowded and should have about one third of its main branches or stems removed each year.

On a garden scale, the berries should be picked when dry and ripe. These move continually down the rows, straddling a row of bushes, shaking the branches and stripping off the fruit. The blackcurrants are placed into half tonne bins and to minimise stoppage time, some machines have cross conveyors which direct the fruit into continuously moving trailers in the adjoining row.

The ONE Thing: The Surprisingly Simple Truth Behind Extraordinary Results

A modern machine can pick up to fifty tonnes of blackcurrants in a day using only one operator and two tractor drivers. Some fruit is still picked by hand for use in the fresh fruit market. Ribes plants are susceptible to several diseases and a number of insect pests.

However, new varieties have been developed, or are being developed, to overcome some of these problems. Reversion is a serious disease transmitted by the blackcurrant gall mite Cecidophyopsis ribis. It causes a decline in yield and is quite widespread in Europe but is rarely encountered on other continents. Symptoms include a modification of leaf shape in summer and swollen buds "big bud" in winter, each housing thousands of microscopic mites. All new plants purchased should be certified as virus-free. White pine blister rust Cronartium ribicola needs two alternate hosts to complete its lifecycle.

One host is plants in the genus Ribes. On the blackcurrant, it causes the leaves to become pale and later develop tiny orange pustules and sometimes a yellow filamentous coating on some leaves. The fruit crop is little affected but the leaves fall early and growth is slowed the following year. The other host is any of the white pines , in which it causes serious disease and mortality for the North American species that have not co-evolved with the rust.

The effectiveness of these restrictions is questionable, since other Ribes species also host the disease and are native to North America. American gooseberry mildew and powdery mildew can infect the leaves and shoot tips, and botrytis may cause the fruit to rot in a wet season. Currant and gooseberry leaf spot Drepanopeziza ribis is another disease of blackcurrants, but it is not usually a serious problem as most cultivars now have some resistance.

Edible Medicinal And Non Medicinal Plants Vol 5 Fruits

The blackcurrant leaf midge can cause browning, crimping and distortion of leaves at the tips of shoots but it is seldom a serious problem. The blackcurrant sawfly Nematus ribesii lays its eggs on the underside of the leaves and the voracious larvae work their way along the shoots, stripping off leaf after leaf. In a serious attack, the bush can be denuded of leaves. Larvae of the currant borer drill their way along the centres of shoots, which wilt and die back. Other insect pests include scale insects , aphids and earwigs.

There are many cultivars of blackcurrant.

Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 5, Fruits

This effort centered mainly in Scotland, Poland, and New Zealand. In Britain the Scottish Crop Research Institute was tasked with developing new varieties suitable for growing in the north of the country. They produced new cultivars that had greater cold tolerance, especially in the spring, ripened earlier and more evenly and had greater fungal disease resistance. Frost tolerance was improved by selecting for late flowering and genetic research identified genes involved in resistance to gall mite and the blackcurrant reversion virus.

This was followed by several other cultivars for the juicing industry such as 'Ben Alder' and 'Ben Tirran'. The cultivar 'Ben Hope' was released in with increased tolerance to gall mite, and in the same year, 'Ben Gairn' became available. It shows resistance to the reversion virus. Varieties producing green fruit, less strongly-flavoured and sweeter than typical blackcurrants, are cultivated in Finland , where they are called "greencurrants" viherherukka.

Researchers have crossed various varieties and introduced inter-specific genetic material from the gooseberry Ribes grossularia , the red currant Ribes rubrum and the flowering currant Ribes sanguineum. The resulting offspring were further back-crossed to R. Further cultivars 'Polares' and 'Tihope' are being tested. Breeding programmes are concentrating on yield, large fruit size, consistency of cropping and upright habit. In North America, there is a need for this fruit to have resistance to white pine blister rust. New cultivars such as 'Crusader', 'Coronet' and 'Consort' have been developed there by crossing R.

However the quality and yield of these varieties are poor as compared to non-resistant strains and only Consort is reliably self-fertile. Back-crossing these varieties to a parent have produced new strains such as 'Titania' that have a higher yield, better disease resistance, are more tolerant of adverse weather conditions and are suitable for machine harvesting. The blackcurrant is native to northern Europe and Asia. It was cultivated in Russia by the 11th century when it was present in monastery gardens and also grown in towns and settlements.

Cultivation in Europe is thought to have started around the last decades of the 17th century. Since blackcurrant berries are a rich source of the vitamin, and blackcurrant plants are suitable for growing in the UK climate, the British Government encouraged their cultivation and soon the yield of the nation's crop increased significantly.